# The Unix Filesystem

In the CommandLine module, we learned how to find our location using the terminal, but that is, of course, of limited use if we don’t have a working knowledge of its structure.
Unix systems, Linux systems and, to some extent the virtualized filesystems in Git Bash for Windows follow the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard.

# The Root Directory

Every file, directory and device in a Unix filesystem exists somewhere under /, the “root” directory. This is the case, even when the filesystems are on a different physical disk or partition–they have a mount point somewhere under /.

## Root Confusion

The word “root” is used in several contexts in a Unix-like system.

#### The Root Directory

The first context is used to refer to the root directory, under which all of the files exist.

#### The Root User

root is the user name or account that by default has access to all commands and files.
Also known as the ‘superuser’ account, it is the account that is used for single-user mode. You should never use the root account as your ‘daily driver,’ instead opting to use the sudo command to escalate your privileges temporarily.

#### ‘Slash Root’

In the root directory is a directory called /root that is the root user’s home directory. When spoken, it is referred to as “Slash Root.”
On a typical Linux system, (For example, the one I am using right now,) the root directory contains the following directories:

## Dot and Dot-Dot

If you look at that list, there are a couple of strangely-named directories:

These are a couple of special directories that every directory contains.

### Dot

The first one, ./ (referred to as ‘dot’,) is the current directory. It’s a useful shortcut for saying “here,” when using the terminal. For example, you might want to copy your Vim configuration file (.vimrc) from a server to the directory where you happen to be: